Carpinus betulus or European hornbeam is a species adapted to warmer climates which makes it interesting to monitor in the context of climate change. Interestingly, signs of its presence were found in Ireland in the past, and declined afterwards [1]. The species is also economically important, being used as a source of timber [2]. It is also a widely researched species globally, with more than 300 of its features being studied, as retrieved from relevant databases.

The tree at the garden has also an individual value, as a fine specimen tree from the collection.

1. Waldren, S. 2022. Personal communication

2. Sikkema, R., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Carpinus betulus in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e01d8cf+


Microscope image of leaf surface showing particulate pollution

Stomatal Conductance

Particulate Matter