Salix x fagilis or Crack willow, relating to the brittle, easily broken branches, is a hybrid species of willow native to Turkey [1].

It is a typical tree of riversides, stream banks and other permanently wet sites. It is an adaptable tree with a capacity to disperse over wide areas along watercourses, with a history of invasiveness in a number of countries, including South Africa, New Zealand and Australia [2]. It is a temperate species preferring moist habitats, therefore interesting to observe in a changing climate. It is a widely studied species, with more than 100 of its features being studied globally, as retrieved from relevant databases.

1. POWO (2023). “Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 08 November 2023.”

2. ‘Salix fragilis (crack willow)’ (2022) CABI Compendium. CABI. doi: 10.1079/cabicompendium.48577.


Microscope image of leaf surface showing particulate pollution

Stomatal Conductance

Particulate Matter